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Eggtimer ATmega8 AVR applications

Eggtimer with ATmega8
Hardware, Mounting, Application and Software for an 8 minute eggtimer
Eggtimer ATmega8

Eggtimer with ATmega8

  1. Properties
  2. Hardware
  3. Mounting
  4. Software
  5. Conclusions
This describes a timer, that operates with eight red/green duo LEDs. It can be used to control the cooking process of eggs.



1 Properties of the eggtimer with ATmega8

This eggtimer has eight red/green LEDs, of which maximum two are active, to save battery. The first one displays the last full minute in red, the second the current minute in green with an increasing red share. When a minute is over, it plays a programmable tune on the speaker.

As always I provide the following files that belong to this project:

Hardware

Schematic of the m8 eggtimer The schematic (here in Libre-Office format) shows the eight red-green duo LEDs are attached to ports B and D of the ATmega8. Two portbits drive one LED. The resistors RL limit the LED current to less than 10 mA. Their values depend from the operating voltage, the table provides values for most of the possible operating voltages.

At start-up and after every full minute a melody is played. This is done via the speaker that is attached to portpin PC0, via an electrolytic capacitor.

In order to use both ports B and D fully for the LED outputs, the LED control and the speaker control are not connected with timer output pins. The program controls both via interrupt-service-routines. See the software section on how this is programmed.

Mounting, PCB

Eggtimer m8 PCB layout as gif Eggtimer m8 PCB component side For the egg timer I develloped a PCB of the size 40-by-50 mm, which is available here as high-resolution gif with its component placement plan (right-click on the two pictures).

All LEDs have to be mounted in the same direction, the longer LED pin to the lower hole.

The layout is single-sided, with only one bridge to be mounted. The single small line inside the ISP6 plug is a bit risky, but with my laser printer, my UV-LED exposer, with diluted sodium hydroxide and Iron-III-Chloride it worked fine.

Those who do not want to program the ATmega8 inside the PCB, do not need the ISP6 plug.

At 3 V operating voltage the timer needs the following supply currents:

PhaseStateNumber of LEDsSpreakerCurrent (mA)
StartFirst LED green, increasing red share1-7.4
One LED green, tone playing1X18
RunningOne LED red, next LED green with increasing red share2-13.3
Ninth minuteOny tone playing-X8
SleepEnd, ready, off--0.4

Software

Software-Download

The source code in assembler format is available here, the source code in the browser click here.

Assembling works with any modern AVR assembler.

During programming no fuses need to changed.

Software-Details

The LED control

LED row on the two ports Controlling the LEDs is complicated because the previous LED is to turn red, while the next is PWM controlled.

The picture shows the attached eight LEDs on the two ports. On the shon bit combination the respective LEDs turn red or green. The line Hex shows the bit combination to be written to the ports B and D.

To turn the previous LED also to red, the LED from number 2 on have to add their previous red state. This leads to the hexadecimal codes for PB and PD. When LED 5 is active in the PWM state, both PB and PD combinations are not zero.

Organization of the SRAM The LED combinations 1 to 8 Here the combinations of the LEDs 1 to 3 and 8 are shown, as located in the SRAM.

The table in SRAM To relieve the interrupt-service-routine from unnecessary and time-intensive decisions, those bit combinations are once generated in SRAM.

During operation the register pair Y points to the currently active LED. When the minute ends, four are added to Y. The software uses the ability of AVRs to temporarily add an offset to Y when accessing the bytes +1, +2 and +3 of the current combination (ldd r,Y+n): at PWM phase start-up Y and Y+1 are written to ports B and D, at PWM compare match Y+2 and Y+3 are written to these ports.

The time control

PWM control of the LEDs The time control is organized in PWM cycles. At start-up of each inner PWM cycle the actual LED turns red, by setting the low portbit and clearing the next higher portbit. When compare match occurs, these two portbits are reversed.

If this inner PWM cycle is over, it is repeated for 14 times.

After that the next compare match value is selected and the whole inner and outer PWM cycles are repeated. If the compare match value finally reaches 256, a minute is over.

To reach this timing, the timer TC2 runs as CTC, with a compare match value of 60. This ensures a perfect repetition frequency: 1,000,000 / 1 / 61 / 256 = 64.037 Hz. That means 15.616 ms per outer PWM cycle. 256 outer PWM cycles with increasing compare match values yield nearly four seconds. The repetition of the inner PWM cycle has theoretically to be be 15 to reach one minute. Practically I measured too long times, so I reduced that repetition value to 14 instead. Note that on other operating voltages the internal RC has different frequencies, so either increase or decrease that value.

When the ATmega8 starts timer/counter TC2 is inited: the compare match value is adjusted to 60, the repetition counter in X is set to 14 and the timer is brought to CTC mode with a prescaler of 1. Anyting that follows is done within the ISR of this timer. ,

The compare match value of 60 means additionally, that all ISR activities have to be finished within this time, to ensure that no interrupts are missed. Within the source code as well as in the flow diagrams the clock cycles needed are listed. It is not necessary to clock the ATmega8 with an elevated frequency to achieve this timing.

Flow diagram of the timing with the OC2-ISR

Flow diagram of the TC2-OC-ISR This is the complete TC2-OC routine. It starts with comparing the register rPwmCnt with the compare match value in register rPwmCmp. If both are equal, the LED is switched to green.

Then the PWM counter in register rPwmCnt is increased. If that does not yield zero, the ISR returns from the interrupt.

If rPwmCnt reaches zero, the PWM repetition counter in X is decreased. If that does not reach zero, the next inner cycle PWM cycle is started by switching the LED to red (Restart with Y and Y+1).

If the PWM repetition counter reaches zero, he is restarted with 14 and the compare match value in register rPwmCmp is increased. Again the next cycle starts with a red LED.

If the compare match register X reaches zero, the pointer Y to SRAM is increased by four. If this does not reach the end of the SRAM table, the next melody is started (see OC1A-ISR) and the cycle starts with a red LED again, to which Y now points.

If the end of the table in SRAM is reached, the Timer TC2 is switched off, along with its interrupt enable bit. The OCIE1A-bit remains on to allow the speaker to play the last tune.

Playing melodies

Flow diagram of the tone output in OCR1A Playing tunes uses the 16-bit-timer TC1 in CTC mode. The ISR switches the speaker output pin PC0 high and low.

To adjust the divider rate of TC1 for a certain tone, the software holds a gamut table of constants behind the label gamut:. Here the gamut frequencies between 27 Hz and up to 18.794 kHz, more than 9 1/2 octaves, are assigned to constants. For chamber tone A4 a compare match value of 1,136 for Compare A is listed. This yields 1,000,000 / 1 / 1,136 / 2 = 440.14 Hz. The 2 results from the fact that a complete wave consists of two cycles, one high and one low.

Two "tones" are remarkable:
  1. cPs: This "tone" is a pause, the resulting frequency is generated, but the output on the speaker pin is suppressed by setting the bit bQuiet in the flag register rFlag. This "tone" is recognized by its LSB finger print, because it is the only one with that LSB (see the table for that check).
  2. cEnd: This "tone" switches the music play off. The next tune is played when the miinute is over. The pointer Z points to the next tone following cEnd. cEnd is also recognized by its LSB, because no other tone has this LSB (see the table).
Because each tone needs a specific number of waves to reach the same duration (called frequency), these durations are give for all tones as constants with n behind the label Durations:. So for A4 the compare match value of cA4 is associated with the duration nA4. All those durations are derived from four seconds (musicians know why). Full notes are divided by four, half notes by 8, quarters by 16 and sixteenth by 32. By multiplying those durations with three before dividing by eight also 3/8 durations can be programmed. Make sure that your dividing does not reach zero, because that yields a very long instead of a very short tone.

Another limit concerns the maximum frequency that can be generated. As you can see from the flow diagram the OC1A-ISR needs at maximum 40 clock cycles. That would limit the maximum frequency to be generated to cX8 tones. Fortunately half of the interrupts just reverse the output pin and need only 18 cycles. All repetitions of the wave need only 21 cycles, so there is lots of time left for the OC2-ISR and the OC1A-ISR to perform. There is only ONE case where the 40 are needed, so 14 (cE9), 16 (cC9) or even 17 kHz (cD9) can well be generated. I never tried cE9, so I cannot guarantee that it works. And: my speaker does not sound tones above 12 Hz, so I can not verify it.

With these constants melodies can be incoded into tables in the flash memory. Here is the Internationale as table:

Internationale:
  ;   Völ-                      ker
  .dw cH3,nH3*3/16, cPs,nPs/16, cA3,nA3/16, cPs,nPs/16
  ;   hört                   die                      Sig                    na-                    le
  .dw cG2,nG2/2, cPs,nPs/16, cD2,nG2*3/8, cPs,nPs/16, cH1,nH1/8, cPs,nPs/16, cE2,nE2/2, cPs,nPs/16, cC2,nC2/4,cPs,nPs/8
  ; Auf                         zum                     letz-                  ten                      Ge-                    fecht!
  .dw cA3,nA3*3/16, cPs,nPs/16, cG2,nG2/16, cPs,nPs/16, cF2,nF2/2, cPs,nPs/16, cE2,nE2*3/8, cPs,nPs/16, cD2,nD2/8, cPs,nPs/16, cD2,nD2/2,cPs,nPs/8
  ;   Die                    In-                      ter-                   na-                    tio-       na-                    le
  .dw cD2,nD2/4, cPs,nPs/16, cH3,nH3*3/8, cPs,nPs/16, cH3,nH3/8, cPs,nPs/16, cA3,nH3/4, cPs,nPs/16, cD2,nD2/4, cPs,nPs/16, cG2,nG2/2, cF2,nF2*3/8,cPs,nPs/8
  ;   er-                       kämpft                 das                    Men-                   schen-                 recht.
  .dw cF2,nF2*3/16, cPs,nPs/16, cE2,nE2/8, cPs,nPs/16, cD2,nD2/8, cPs,nPs/16, cE2,nE2/4, cPs,nPs/16, cA3,nA3/4, cPs,nPs/16, cA3,nA3/2
  .dw cEnd

Each note consists of two words: the first cXn determines the tone's height, the second the tone's duration nXn in packages of four seconds. If the next tone is to be separated by a pause, use cPs and nPs to determine the length of the pause. With instruments you can encode any melody.

If the pause is missing between two notes, both tones are following each other. With that you can program powerful asian music as well as motor and buzz saws. In the flash there is enough space left for extensive programming.

cEnd closes the output of the melody. It is restarted each minute.

To the right you see the complete algorithm of the tone output.

Egg timer video



Link to the ogg video file and to the MP4 file.

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